Age related macular degeneration is a type of disorder which leads to loss of vision in people ageing fifty and above. It affects and damages the macula of an eye, a spot present at the centre of the retina that helps in formation of a sharp and clear image of an object. It is not necessary that this disease affects the people of a particular age group only. Sometimes it may advance very slowly causing no vision loss for a long period of time and sometimes it enhances very fast causing vision loss in one or both the eyes.
Symptoms of AMD:
The usual and most common symptom of this disorder is that the area near the centre of vision becomes a blur. This area grows larger and intense with time and develops spots in the central vision. The brightness and intensity also decrease along with the time. In some cases, there is a change in perception of colour also.
Factors affecting AMD:
Normally the disorder occurs at the age of fifty but due to some factors, it may occur at early ages. Smoking doubles the rate of this disease. This disease transmits from genes also. It may also occur due to unhealthy nutrition.
One should avoid smoking as it enhances the rate of the disease. Regular exercise keeps the disease under control. One should maintain the blood pressure and cholesterol level and eat a healthy diet rich in vegetables and fish.
Stages of AMD:
Early AMD- People with early AMD stages do not have vision loss. Intermediate AMD- This may cause some vision loss, but most people do not experience any symptom. The Last stage AMD- In this, the vision loss takes place due to damage of macula.
Types of AMD:
The Dry AMD is also known as geographic atrophy. In this, the cells break down gradually in the macula that carries visual information to the brain. They weaken and cause vision loss.
The Wet AMD is also known as Neovascular AMD. In this, the abnormal blood vessels undergo beneath the retina and leak blood which leads to swelling and damage of the macula. Unlikely in geographical atropy, this is a severe and a rapid function.
Both the orders can simultaneously take place in one eye also and either of the two can occur firstly.
Treatment of AMD
There is no treatment for early AMD as it causes no harm to eyes and shows no symptoms of the disease. Regular exercise prevents the early AMD to advance. The High doses of vitamins and minerals slow down the progression of the disease in people having intermediate AMD. Vitamin C, vitamin E and metals like zinc and copper slow down the progression of late AMD. Always consult your physician before treating yourself with some medicine. Be safe and be healthy.